Homework represents the opportunities for students to learn and review content and skills outside of the regular academic school day (Dean, Hubbell, Pitler, & Stone, 2012). It is also an extension of the classroom (LaConte, 1981).
Over the years, studies have been conducted to research the educational practice of assigning homework to K-12 students. Together, these studies point to a positive relationship between assigned homework being completed and achievement levels (Cooper, Robinson, & Patall, 2006).
Homework can be an avenue to connect background knowledge to current and upcoming instructional units by engaging students in making observations, viewing media content, initiating conversations with peers and adults, and completing reading assignments from both primary and secondary sources (Dean et al., 2012).
Homework can also be assigned for the student to engage in the act of repeating a specific skill or reviewing amounts of information. When the student employs academic practice to new skills and processes, proficiency will increase in the areas of recall, speed, an accuracy of concepts to the degree information learned will be accessible for cognitive use (Dean et al. 2012).
- Focus on constructing high quality homework with intentional purpose to support academic learning objectives
- Articulate the purpose of assigned homework
- Assign, grade, return, and discuss homework in a timely manner
- Provide student with specific feedback as it relates to learning objectives
- When possible, coordinate homework assignments with colleagues and be cognizant of the school calendar
- Utilize a variety of strategies to explain homework assignments to students
- Communicate homework expectations, policies, and procedures to both student and parents
- Communicate how homework influences a student’s overall grade to both student and parents
- Communicate with parents once the student has demonstrated consistent inability to successfully complete homework
- Provide a set time and location for the completion of homework free of outside distractions
- Assist in teaching how to use time wisely, prioritizing all school assignments, and in general good study habits that lead to academic success
- Be encouraging and inspire effort
- Monitor productivity but involvement should be kept to a minimum level
- Review school provided materials such as previous assignments, textbooks, in-class assignments and/or notes, etc.
- Communicate with the classroom teacher once the student has demonstrated consistent inability to successfully complete homework
- Complete all homework as assigned by your teacher on time
- Seek out your teacher for assistance with any questions prior to leaving class
- Use class time provided for completing classwork and/or starting homework
- Utilize academic tutoring times when you become aware of your inability to successfully complete homework
- Set aside time and maintain a quiet place for homework completion
- Budget your time and daily check for due dates and upcoming assignments
Cooper, H., Robison, J.C., & Patall, E.A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement?: A synthesis of research, 1987-2003. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 1-62.
Dean, C., Hubbell, E., Pitler, H., & Stone, B.J. (2012). Assigning homework and providing practice (2nd ed.). Classroom instruction that works: research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. (pp.100-116). ASCD/McREL.
LaConte, Ronald T. HOMEWORK AS A LEARNING EXPERIENCE. WHAT RESEARCH SAYS TO THE TEACHER. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 1981.